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Imágenes de personajes famosos convertidos en monstruos por los alumnos de la materia de Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (Informática) empleando el programa GIMP de retoque fortográfico.




Convocatoria de licencias para el curso 2011/12. Os adjunto la convocatoria de este curso y el BOJA que la regula.


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Las 10 estrategias de manipulación mediática de Chomsky


1- LA ESTRATEGIA DE LA DISTRACCIÓN.
El elemento primordial del control social es la estrategia de la distracción que consiste en desviar la atención del público de los problemas importantes y de los cambios decididos por las elites políticas y económicas, mediante la técnica del diluvio o inundación de continuas distracciones y de informaciones insignificantes. La estrategia de la distracción es igualmente indispensable para impedir al público interesarse por los conocimientos esenciales, en el área de la ciencia, la economía, la psicología, la neurobiología y la cibernética. “Mantener la atención del público distraída, lejos de los verdaderos problemas sociales, cautivada por temas sin importancia real. Mantener al público ocupado, ocupado, ocupado, sin ningún tiempo para pensar; de vuelta a granja como los otros animales” (cita del texto ‘Armas silenciosas para guerras tranquilas“).

2- CREAR PROBLEMAS, Y DESPUÉS OFRECER SOLUCIONES.
Este método también es llamado “problema-reacción-solución”. Se crea un problema, una “situación” prevista para causar cierta reacción en el público, a fin de que éste sea el mandante de las medidas que se desea hacer aceptar. Por ejemplo: dejar que se desenvuelva o se intensifique la violencia urbana, u organizar atentados sangrientos, a fin de que el público sea el demandante de leyes de seguridad y políticas en perjuicio de la libertad. O también: crear una crisis económica para hacer aceptar como un mal necesario el retroceso de los derechos sociales y el desmantelamiento de los servicios públicos.

3- LA ESTRATEGIA DE LA GRADUALIDAD.
Para hacer que se acepte una medida inaceptable, basta aplicarla gradualmente, a cuentagotas, por años consecutivos. Es de esa manera que condiciones socioeconómicas radicalmente nuevas (neoliberalismo) fueron impuestas durante las décadas de 1980 y 1990: Estado mínimo, privatizaciones, precariedad, flexibilidad, desempleo en masa, salarios que ya no aseguran ingresos decentes, tantos cambios que hubieran provocado una revolución si hubiesen sido aplicadas de una sola vez.

4- LA ESTRATEGIA DE DIFERIR.
Otra manera de hacer aceptar una decisión impopular es la de presentarla como“dolorosa y necesaria”, obteniendo la aceptación pública, en el momento, para una aplicación futura. Es más fácil aceptar un sacrificio futuro que un sacrificio inmediato. Primero, porque el esfuerzo no es empleado inmediatamente. Luego, porque el público, la masa, tiene siempre la tendencia a esperar ingenuamente que “todo irá mejor mañana” y que el sacrificio exigido podrá ser evitado. Esto da más tiempo al público para acostumbrarse a la idea del cambio y de aceptarla con resignación cuando llegue el momento.

5- DIRIGIRSE Al PÚBLICO COMO CRIATURAS DE POCA EDAD.
La mayoría de la publicidad dirigida al gran público utiliza discurso, argumentos, personajes y entonación particularmente infantiles, muchas veces próximos a la debilidad, como si el espectador fuese una criatura de poca edad o un deficiente mental. Cuanto más se intente buscar engañar al espectador, más se tiende a adoptar un tono infantilizante. ¿Por qué? “Si uno se dirige a una persona como si tuviese 12 años o menos, entonces, en razón de la sugestionabilidad, ella tenderá, con cierta probabilidad, a una respuesta o reacción también desprovista de un sentido crítico como la de una persona de 12 años o menos de edad” (ver “Armas silenciosas para guerras tranquilas”).

6- UTILIZAR EL ASPECTO EMOCIONAL MUCHO MÁS QUE LA REFLEXIÓN.
Hacer uso del aspecto emocional es una técnica clásica para causar un corto circuito en el análisis racional, y finalmente al sentido critico de los individuos. Por otra parte, la utilización del registro emocional permite abrir la puerta de acceso al inconsciente para implantar o injertar ideas, deseos, miedos y temores, compulsiones, o inducir comportamientos…

7- MANTENER AL PÚBLICO EN LA IGNORANCIA Y LA MEDIOCRIDAD.
Hacer que el público sea incapaz de comprender las tecnologías y los métodos utilizados para su control y su esclavitud. “La calidad de la educación dada a las clases sociales inferiores debe ser la mas pobre y mediocre posible, de forma que la distancia de la ignorancia que planea entre las clases inferiores y las clases sociales superiores sea y permanezca imposibles de alcanzar para las clases inferiores” (ver ‘Armas silenciosas para guerras tranquilas). A esto, mi padre, en vida de Franco, lo concretaba así: “cuantos más burros haya mejor cabalgaremos

8- ESTIMULAR AL PÚBLICO A SER COMPLACIENTE CON LA MEDIOCRIDAD.
Promover al público a creer que es moda el hecho de ser estúpido, vulgar e inculto… (Éste es el hombre-masa de Ortega y Gasset formulado en 1930 y sus antecesores y sucesores).

9- REFORZAR LA AUTOCULPABILIDAD.
Hacer creer al individuo que es solamente él el culpable por su propia desgracia, por causa de la insuficiencia de su inteligencia, de sus capacidades, o de sus esfuerzos. Así, en lugar de rebelarse contra el sistema económico, el individuo se autodesvalida y se culpa, lo que genera un estado depresivo, uno de cuyos efectos es la inhibición de su acción. Y, sin acción, no hay revolución! (Hemos vivido “por encima de nuestras posibilidades” ¿verdad?)

10- CONOCER A LOS INDIVIDUOS MEJOR DE LO QUE ELLOS MISMOS SE CONOCEN.
En el transcurso de los últimos 50 años, los avances acelerados de la ciencia han generado una creciente brecha entre los conocimentos del público y aquellos poseídas y utilizados por las elites dominantes. Gracias a la biología, la neurobiología y la psicología aplicada, el “sistema” ha disfrutado de un conocimento avanzado del ser humano, tanto de forma física como psicológicamente. El sistema ha conseguido conocer mejor al individuo común de lo que él se conoce a sí mismo. Esto significa que, en la mayoría de los casos, el sistema ejerce un control mayor y un gran poder sobre los individuos, mayor que el de los individuos sobre sí mismos.

Simple Changes in Current Practices May Save Our Schools

Marc PrenskyBy Marc Prensky

Here’s an idea to get at least something positive out of the Gulf oil spill. What if volunteers (or BP, under presidential order) collected samples of the tar balls on the beaches, sealed them in plastic bags, and then shipped them to every school in America for all students to analyze in their science classes. We could even throw in some oil-covered sand and feathers for good measure.

Doing this would involve every school kid (and science teacher) firsthand in the problem. They would see and smell, for themselves, just what the spill is actually producing, rather than just hearing about it on TV. Their awareness, as citizens and scientists, would be greatly enhanced.

To make it easier for teachers unfamiliar with the details of petroleum and environmental sciences, the NSF and DOE could quickly create study guides and lesson plans. Students and classes who were moved by these lessons could then talk with students living near the Gulf Coast, via email or Skype, to understand the devastation even further. They could discuss solutions, start Facebook and other groups, and contact local scientists. Many students would be motivated to pursue environmental and other sciences further, and to join and become active in environmental movements.

That is what today’s education should be: not just “relevant” or “authentic” (the current buzzwords) but real; not just preparing students for some test based on “standards” but actually dealing with the problems of our — and especially the students’ — day.

It is ironic that — given the current insistence on curriculum and standards — any teacher who wanted to divert class time to dealing with perhaps the biggest environmental disaster in U.S. history might well fear being taken to task for doing so. Providing such “real” education, in many school systems, would require special administrative dispensation from the curricula.

And those curricula, in all subjects, are currently so overstuffed that teachers typically have no time to cover all of it during the school year. That leaves little or no time for studying real problems as they arise, for deep discussions of issues, or for students to explore their own interests and passions. For our kids’ education to improve, serious curricular deletion and revision is required.

Yet, our broken education system is, I believe, fixable. Not just by rushing to start new charter schools and programs, an expensive solution that is unlikely to reach the numbers we need (i.e., 55 million) in a reasonable time. Currently, the number of students reached per year by all the best programs put together, including all charter schools, which includes KIPP, Harlem Zone, New Vision, Uncommon Schools, and others, and programs like Teach for America, NYC Teaching Fellows, and Teaching Matters, is less than 2 million, i.e., only 4% of what is needed.

And not by rushing to the “disruptive” approach of teaching through technology, championed by Clayton Cristensen and others. Certainly this will eventually help, but creating technology that teaches, and teaches well, except for the most highly self-motivated students, is extremely difficult and has yet to be done broadly. For our mostly unmotivated “middle students,” who are the source of most of our failures and dropouts, online learning has yet to emerge as a viable approach.

The best, fastest, least expensive, and most easily executable solution to our educational problems is to change what goes on in our current classrooms. This is not as hard as many make it out to be since most of our teachers are people of good will and high motivation. What we need to do is provide them with easily doable directions that they can all start using in September to increase student motivation and performance. In addition to making education real, let me suggest five others.

The first relates to student passions. Our kids are almost all intensely passionate about many things (not typically their school subjects), but their teachers are typically unaware of what those passions are because they rarely ask. This is an issue that matters enormously to students and can be addressed with almost no additional work on the part of teachers. All they have to do is, at the beginning of the year when they ask each student his or her name, ask them what they are passionate about, write it down, and remember it. Once teachers know their students’ passions, they can group them by their interests, give them differentiated assignments, and address them with different, more relevant approaches. Students will get the important message that they are cared about as individuals.

A second motivating change is for teachers to greatly reduce the amount of “telling” they do, relative to the amount of classroom activities and “partnering.” If properly directed, all students today are capable of learning things they need to know on their own (using books, libraries, or course technology when available) without all the explanations having to come from teachers directly. It is actually far less work for teachers — and far more motivating for students — to cover the required curriculum by creating guiding questions for students to answer on their own rather than by creating new lectures.

A third thing that can be done immediately is to begin each day or class by putting students in the right frame of mind for their daily learning by employing existing, proven, 5-15 minute “relaxation” tools. These types of videos and software, which have been shown to greatly increase student focus and concentration and reduce difficult behavior, could easily be made available by the DOE to all teachers.

A fourth simple and motivating change would be to connect all our students to peers around the world through such free tools as ePals. Even when there is only one computer in a classroom (almost always the case in the U.S. today) students can, one or two at a time, regularly connect with students across the globe. ePals is not only free, it is secure as well.

A final quick change with great motivating potential would be to allow, for instructional use, devices the students already, to an increasing extent, own, know, and love, i.e., cell phones. There is a growing movement of teachers and educators who support this; they are creating lessons for the curricular use of cell phones while figuring out ways to deal with potential student abuse. If not all students in a class have their own phones, a teacher can easily create teams of two or more students to share.

All of these things are doable this September. If implemented widely, they would change the face of American education, improving it greatly. There are many other things we could do as well. Making these relatively simple, student-focused changes would have much more effect on student success than requiring more advanced degrees for teachers or even implementing smaller class sizes (this becomes less of an issue once students begin partnering and learning on their own).

We should all support experimentation and innovation in education. But instead of just spending, and often wasting, billions of dollars to create things that are new, let’s try harder to fix what we have that’s already in place. Our kids, when properly motivated, are far more capable and creative than our critics give them credit for. Let’s give all of them the motivation they need to work, create, and succeed.